The process of facilitating a child’s learning of skills, facts, values, beliefs and habits through a certain number of years is called schooling. This can be done in different methods, using different curriculum and different environment. Schooling has become a basic requirement in the past few years, as the governments all over the world made schooling compulsory for children below a certain age. Schooling is done in an institution i.e. school. The process of schooling happens in different levels, such as per-school, first grade, second grade, third grade, and so on till the twelfth grade. These different levels are grouped into pre-school, kindergarten, primary school, elementary school and high school or secondary education.
Pre-school has students from the age of three to seven depending on the country they live in. In some countries pre-school is also called as kindergarten or nursery. The education provided in pre-school aims to develop the physical skills, intellectual skills, and morals in the child. There is balanced emphasis on all three of them and these skills are the underlying base for learning in the future.
Primary school has children between the age of five or six to nine or ten. Children in first grade to fourth grade are a part of the primary school. Around 89% of children around the world are enrolled in primary school. In some countries, the Education for All programs by UNESCO ensures that children receive at least basic primary education.
Elementary education has children between ages of nine or ten up to 12 or 13 year olds. The children in elementary school are in fifth to eight grades. Elementary education is also made compulsory in most parts of the world and is considered as a basic requirement. In countries like India, schooling and education is compulsory for children at or below the age of fourteen. In some other countries, education till the twelfth grade is right to all the citizens of that country.
Secondary education or high school deals with children between the age of twelve or thirteen to seventeen or eighteen. The exact boundary between high school and elementary school differs from one country to another. High school is where children spend their most crucial growing years, that is, adolescence. High school is considered highly important for the same reason as it contributes a great deal to the overall development of the child. However, high school is not made compulsory in several countries around the world.
There are different institution where a child can be schooled and the principles and values of these institutions change from one country to another. The different types of schooling institutions are- government schools, primary schools, convents or charitable educational institutions, colleges and sometimes a child can be home-schooled.